ASTRA and SPAR SHIPPING: What happens when a time charterer fails to pay timely hire?

Sep 30, 2016

ASTRA and SPAR SHIPPING: What happens when a time charterer fails to pay timely hire?

Legal Assistance and Defence Cover (LADC) is available to Members in addition to the traditional P&I cover. We are very grateful to Ian Teo, Partner at Rajah & Tann’s, Shipping and International Trade, Singapore, for sharing an example of where LADC cover can assist Members in the event of a dispute between Owners and Charterers in relation to termination of a charterparty.

Amongst the legal issues shipowners and charterers are interested in, the issue of whether a shipowner can terminate a charterparty and how much they can claim after termination ranks high. The answer was settled for decades until the 2013 English High Court decision, THE ASTRA. Then, just as the industry was coming to terms with THE ASTRA, the traditional view was reinstated in 2015 with an English decision (SPAR SHIPPING). These two High Court decisions stand side by side pending the decision of the English Court of Appeal in SPAR SHIPPING. As we await the decision of the appeal, this note revisits the two High Court decisions and their impact.

The Traditional Position

What are the consequences when a time charterer (‘Charterer’) fails to pay charter hire on time?

There are two aspects to this issue:

1. Whether the shipowner (‘Owner’) can terminate the charterparty.

2. How much the Owner can claim. Is the Owner confined to charter hire which had fallen due and payable at the time of termination (outstanding hire) or can the Owner also claim damages in respect of the unexpired charter term (expectation losses)?

When can the owner terminate the charterparty?

There are three possibilities as to when an owner can terminate a charterparty:

1.Traditionally, the obligation to pay charter hire is generally regarded as an innominate term¹. Hence, the Owner’s common law right to terminate the charterparty for failure(s) to pay hire on time depends on the ‘severity’ of the breach. The test to be applied is whether the failure(s) to pay hire on time, therefore substantially depriving the Owner of the whole benefit of the contract e.g. the HONGKONG FIR test.

2.The other possibility for common law termination is that the parties had agreed to elevate the hire payment obligation to a ‘condition’. If the payment obligation is a condition, then a breach in and of itself constitutes a ‘repudiatory breach’, regardless of severity. This entitles the Owner to terminate the charterparty under common law². In the absence of express indications that the parties treated the payment obligation as a ‘condition’, it is generally regarded as an innominate term. Such express indications are usually absent in charterparties based on standard form contracts.

3.Besides common law termination, another possibility is an express termination clause. A well-drafted charterparty would contain a clause expressly conferring the Owner the right to terminate or withdraw the vessel in the event of a default in hire payment. If there is such a clause, the Owner may terminate or otherwise withdraw the vessel upon late hire payment. There is no need to ask whether the hire payment term is an innominate term or a condition. Such clauses typically grant a ‘grace period’ for the Charterer to remedy the default. These are well-known ‘anti-technicality clauses’.

In light of prevalence of these express termination clauses, the real issue is often not whether the Owner can terminate the charterparty but rather what damages the Owner can claim after terminating the charterparty.

How to determine what damages the shipowner can claim

The issue of what damages the shipowner can claim brings us back to the question of whether the hire payment term is a ‘condition’ or an innominate term. The Owner may claim outstanding hire and expectation losses for the unexpired charter term if the hire payment term is regarded as a ‘condition’ or if it is an innominate term and the breach was of sufficient severity as per HONGKONG FIR. If the hire payment term is not a ‘condition’ and the breach was trivial (for example, the Charterer was only a few minutes late in payment), the Owner’s claim is limited to outstanding hire.

Traditionally, the hire payment term is regarded as an ‘innominate term’, not ‘condition’. Hence, when considering issues of termination and damages, the HONGKONG FIR test would apply. Although it is often difficult to apply the HONGKONG FIR test, the principle was at least well-established, until the decision of the High Court decision in THE ASTRA.

The ASTRA – upsetting the traditional view?

In KUWAIT ROCKS CO V AMN BULKCARRIERS INC (THE ASTRA) [2013] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 69 (‘THE ASTRA’), Mr Justice Flaux found that a hire payment clause in a charterparty was a ‘condition’ of the contract which entitled the shipowner to terminate and claim outstanding hire plus expectation losses. The clause was Clause 5 of the NYPE 1946 form, a commonly used time charter form in the dry bulk trade. Clause 5 provided that failing ‘punctual and regular payment’, the shipowner has the ‘liberty to withdraw the vessel’. There was also an ‘anti-technicality clause’ which provided a two-day grace period following the anti-technicality notice. The decision may be broadly summarised as follows:

a) Clause 5 “makes it clear there is a right to withdraw whenever there is a failure to make punctual payment, …irrespective of whether the breach is otherwise repudiatory, the contract treats it as sufficiently serious as to entitle the owners to terminate… this is a strong indication that it was intended that failure to pay hire promptly would go to the root of the contract and thus that the provision was a condition…”

b) Second, “the general rule in mercantile contracts, where there is a ‘time’ provision requiring something to be done by a certain time or payment to be made by a certain time, is that time is considered of the essence…”

c) Clause 5 was previously considered by Brandon J. in THE BRIMNES [1972] who held that “…there is nothing in Clause 5 which shows clearly that the parties intended the obligation to pay hire punctually to be an essential term of the contract, as distinct from being a term for breach of which an express right to withdraw was given”. According to Flaux J., the anti-technicality clause in THE ASTRA reinforced the fact that time was of the essence – the charterers had a maximum grace period of two days. THE BRIMNES was distinguished on the basis that there was no anti-technicality clause in that case.

It is important to have certainty in commercial transactions. The shipowner ought to know with certainty when it could terminate the charterparty upon the charterer’s breach.

Based on THE ASTRA, if a time charter contained an express withdrawal clause in the event of late payment and an anti-technicality clause, the shipowner could expect to claim the outstanding hire and damages for the unexpired charter period. There is no need to ask whether he was deprived of substantially the whole benefit under the charter when considering the issue of damages. This changed again with the decision in SPAR SHIPPING AS v GRAND CHINA LOGISTICS HOLDING (GROUP) CO. LTD [2015] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 407 (‘SPAR SHIPPING’), released two years after THE ASTRA on 18 March 2015.

SPAR SHIPPING: High court – a return to the traditional view?

SPAR SHIPPING reinstated THE BRIMNES position. Mr Justice Popplewell found that Clause 5 was an innominate term, not a ‘condition’. Broadly, the main grounds for the decision may be summarised as follows:

a) The fact that an Owner can withdraw the vessel (or terminate) upon the breach of a term does not by itself indicate whether the term in question is a ‘condition’. The addition of an express right to withdraw when the charterer defaults in hire payment suggests there would be no such right in the absence of such an express termination clause.

b) Popplewell J also noted that the presumption in commercial contracts is that ‘stipulations as to time of payment’ are not of the essence in the absence of a clear indication to the contrary.

c) The wording of the anti-technicality clause does not show that the parties intended time of payment to be of the essence.

d) The option to cancel or withdraw the vessel provides certainty as to when the shipowner could legitimately withdraw (or terminate). There is no need to confer on the shipowner an unmerited right to damages.

Concluding words

Accordingly, SPAR SHIPPING reinstated the ‘orthodox’ position that hire payment is generally an innominate term. In addition, the HONGKONG FIR test remains relevant in terms of right of termination (in the absence of an express withdrawal or termination clause) and the entitlement to expectation losses. Some applauded SPAR SHIPPING for reintroducing orthodoxy. The difficulty is that SPAR SHIPPING and THE ASTRA are both decisions of the High Court. As it turned out, unlike THE ASTRA, SPAR SHIPPING was appealed against. The SPAR SHIPPING appeal has been heard by the Court of Appeal and a decision is pending. Owners’ interests may welcome an affirmation of THE ASTRA. An endorsement of Popplewell J’s position on the other hand restores the status quo. Either way, a Court of Appeal decision would be much welcomed by shipowners and their insurers, to finally determine the correct approach when Charterers fail to pay hire on time.

Source: The Shipowners’ Club

Source from : Marine Insurance P&I Club News,Shipping Law News


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ƬվǶٵӰ Ƭɫ Ƭ ߿Ƭվѵ Ƭ԰ ƬӰ ҹƬƵۿ Ƭصַ¹ ƬӰͼƬ ƬȫӰ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ Ѹ Ƭǿ ƬٶӰ ƬӰ ƬӰӰ ̺Ƭۿ ɫƬӰ Ƭͨ ƬЩ Ƭй Ƭ߹ۿ ƬԻвô Ƭ Ƭվ첥 Ƭܿ Ƭվ򲻿 Ƭµַ Ƭɫ齫Ѹ uƬЩ Ƭ պƬ ɫƬСӰ ƬͼƬ ƬӰ ŷƬۿ ƬƬȫ ƬߵƵ ƬӰ ձƬ߹ۿ ͯƬ Ƭȫظ Ƭʲô Ƭ Ƭ ˼Ƭƿ÷ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬӰ ƬԴ ƬеavŮ Ƭ ӰƬֻ ƬCOM ɫƬ߹ۿ򲻿 ſƬ߹ۿ ƬСӰ ձƬܸ Ƭ ŮƬ Ƭֹ ƬӰȫʲô ½ƬƵ ƬӰѸ Ƭȫ ձƬٷվ ƬƬʲô ƬƵ ŷƬƵ Ƭ첥 Ƭѿ ̨Ƭȫ ƬӰ 첥Ƭվ Ƭ ƬС˵ ƬӰȹ ƬѸ Ƭͬ ձƬƬվ ɫƬվ ƬӰվƬӰٷ Ƭɫ㼪 Ƭ Ӱ ˹Ƭ ƬĿ첥Ӱֻ ½ƬŮ˼ Ƭ ƬЩƵ ˼ƬɫӰ صƬվ ̺ƬӰ Ƭഺ Ƭ ƬͼƬ Ƭֵ ƬС˵ ձƬCOM ƬͼƬ Ƭȥ Ƭdownload ûƬ ̨Ƭvideo Ƭ ƬЩµַ Ƭ ѸƬ Ƭɫ Ƭ ƬƵ Ƭɫ δﻪƬЩ ӰƬѿ ɫƬٶӰ »ƬӰ Ƭaaa 뿴Ƭô ƬӰԺ ҿƬֻ ƬǸվȥѹٷվ ӰƬ첥 Ƭ ƬСѨ Ƭ100 ɫƬۿ Ƭdvd 첥ƬƵŮƬ Ƭħ ˭Ƭվַ ձƬԱ Ƭ Ƭ δﻪƬ߿ ʫƬ߹ۿ ɫƬѹۿ ѵƬٷվ Ƭֻ Ƭ߹ۿ ɫƬַ ŷƬ߹ۿ 첥ƬӰ ɫƬ Ƭվ ƬӰվµַ ƬӰ ƬƵͼƬ Ƭɫ߹ۿ ƬۿַС˵ ƬӾƿ÷ СӰƬ޿첥 ƬԽµַ ƬƭԴҩ ƬַʲôƬַվ ԾƬ ŷƬ Ƭصַ̳ ŷƬӰ Ƭѹۿ Ƭ͵Ů йƬĵӰ ŷƬǿ첥 Ƭվ ƬѸش Ƭ ձƬ ڵƬ ƬߵӰ򲻿 Ƭۿֻ Ƭ ձƬŮ Ƭ߹ۿٷվ Ƭַ ̨Ƭȫ Ѹ ƬԴ ƬbtӴȫ ƬƵ Ƭַ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬƬ йƬӰ򲻿 Ƭ ̺Ƭbt Ƭ߿ ƬƬ ֲƬ߹ۿ ɫƬʲô ƬӰ ¿Ƭ ŷƬƬ ƬӰۿ ƬվǶٿ첥 첥Ƭ ձƬܽȥ װƬ߿ Ƭŷ ƬŮ 첥ƬŮ ƬŮ Ƭ ƬƵµַ ձƬ˽ȥ ƬƬӰ򲻿 Ƭ Ƭ¹ ƬӰ ձƬӰ ÿƬ Ƭվ ƬƵֻ Ƭ ͼƬ ͨƬ ƬӰȫַ Ƭ߲ ƬС Ƭ μҾƬ Ƭ߹ۿ ҶƬ߹ۿ ƬӰ Ƭֳ mp5Ƭ Ƭ ƬӰ Ƭӳǽ ̨Ƭ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬƵ Ƭ Ƭ׼ĦԺŮȫ׷ ˼ƬƵ ̺Ƭ Ƭ첥ӰԺ ˭ƬվͼƬ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬվЩ Ƭ߹ۿַ ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭվ ŷƬ¹ Ƭ¹ ĹƬԱ ձƬ Ƭձ Ƭȫ 뿴Ƭô Ƭۿ ƬӰ߹ۿ Ƭῴ ԸƬӰ ̯Ƭ ƬCOM Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ Ƭ鲻Խ ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭվ Ƭqv ̨ƬƬ ƬͼƬ ̨ƬŮӼ Ƭ ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭµַ Ƭ˭а Ƭ ƬŮ ƬƵ 첥Ƭ ƬƷ ɫƬ ɫƬ߿С˵ ƬַƵ Ƭй ƬߵӰµַ ҿ첥Ƭ պƬƵ ƬַӰ Ƭ ŷƬŮԱ ƬɫӰվ uƬ߲ ˼ƬɫС˵ Ƭa ƬCOM Ƭ˽ Ƭ Ƭǿ ƿ÷Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ߲ ɫƬ߲ Ƭɫ Ƭɫ Ƭѹۿ Ƭ߿ Ƭ ҶƬƵ Ƭĵ ˭ƬС˵ѵ 俵ƬЩ ƬϹۿ ƬŮԱ ƬȥĿȫ Ƭ򲻿 Ƭֻ 첥ƬվƵ Ƭȫ ƬƬ ˭ƬӰ Ƭۿַ򲻿 ˭Ƭ ˭Ƭַ ƬӰԺƬӰԺ ƬƵ Ƭصַ ƬվƵ ƬӰƵ Ƭƿ÷ ҶƬ Ӱ ۿƬվ Ƭַ ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭ첥 Ƭ ƬԿ Ƭվÿ첥վ Ƭ߿ٷ Ƭ ƬŮľ ƬӰƬ ƬƵ ȥƬӰ Ƭվÿ첥ٷվ ̨ƬŮ Ƭ ƬƲ Ƭվ 첥ƬɫƬӰ װƬѸ ĹƬ ƬС˵ Ƭ 첥Ƭȫ Ƭɫ ձƬӰ Ƭǿ δﻪƬר Ƭڹۿ ƬͼƬѸ Ƭ Ƭ첥 ɫƬֻ ƬƵ Ƭ԰ ƬӰ ŮƬ ȥƬ ѵƬµַ ɫƬ߹ۿ Ƭ ëƬ Ƭصַ򲻿 Ƭվ Ƭַַ ƬƵڴϷͷ Ƭר Ƭվ Ƭ Ƭַֻ ǸƬÿ첥 ̺ƬЩ йƬ붯 Ƭ ձƬվ Ƭַ ˭Ƭվ Ƭ Ƭַ ƬƬȫ ƬƵ ƬӰ ȥƬƵ ֻƬӰ ŷƬӰ ƬƬ Ƭ̬ͼƬ Ƭصַٷ Ƭվ ˼ƬƵ Ƭ ƬǸվȥµַ ƬӰ̰ Ƭַʲô Ƭ첥Ӱ ƬͼƬȫ Ƭ򲻿Ƭʲô Ƭ ƬЩٷµַ ƬصӰ Ƭ δﻪƬ ձƬС˵ ƬƬ Ƭĸ ƬӰ Ƭɫ ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭȫصַ ˼Ƭɫͼ Ƭ ձƬ첥 ˼Ƭַ ޶Ƭվ ƬŮ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬƬµַ Ƭȥ Ƭɫվ Ƭվ Ƭŵ Ƭ Ƭվ Ƭͼ Ƭа 첥Ƭֻ ͨƬٷ ɫƬֻ ƬЩ ƬӰվ Ƭ Ƭ ƬӰɫƬƵ ƬѵӰ Ƭq ƬƵ ˭Ƭվ Ƭ󼯺 Ƭȫ߹ۿ Ƭ Ƭ첥 ƬƬӰ Ƭ߲ ŷƬԽƵ ɫƬƵ ƬͼƬ 俵ƬƵ Ƭ ƬӰԺٷ ִƬ߹ۿ ŷƬ ƬӰԺ Ƭdvd Ƭҳʱ ձƬŮ˭ ƬӰ ƬŮ˺͹ͼƬ ƬɫӰ Ƭַ ƬƬӰµַ Ƭ ɫƬӰ ƬС˵ؚƬС˵ַ Ƭտ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭ򲻿 Ƭ¿ Ƭmp4 Ƭ ̯ Ƭ 첥Ƭû ƬŲҰ2صַ Ƭṵ ƬӰ ɫƬվ첥 ½ƬЩ Ƭ¥ ƬɫѸ ѵƬ пƬվӰ Ƭ߲ Ƭĸվû ߿Ƭ޹Ӱȫ Ƭĸÿ Ƭͼ첥 Ƭ Ƭɫ ƬӰ Ƭַ ̺ƬӰ ƬƵ¹ ƬЩͼƬ Ƭ첥 ƬЩӰǺƬĿ ƬۿַƬ Ƭѿ ƬӰվ Ƭ ߿Ƭվ ѵ ͨƬ Ƭٷվ Ƭ߿ ҶƬ鲻Խ Ƭۿַ ƬŮ˼ Ƭm ƬߵӰ ƬҶ ɫƬ ±ϼƬ߹ۿ Ƭǿ鰸 Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ պƬֻ ƬƵ ŷƬǹٷվ пƬο ԾƬӰ ƷƬͼ Ƭs ƬɫƵ ؽƬ ƬѲ aviƬӰ ƬƼ ƬƵ Ƭſ ŷƬƬ ƬձŮ Ƭ첥ٷվ Ƭ װƬѲ ƬӰҹ ƬӰ ɫƬվ ѵƬ첥 ƬŮͼƬ ƬӰ ڵƬ ƬӰCOM Ƭɫ ձƬӰ Ƭվվµַ ǸƬ߿վ ˼ƬӰ ̯Ƭ ƬЩ Ƭ Ƭֳ ƬЩµַ ǸƬÿ첥 ŮƬƵ Ƭֵ ƬӰԺ Ƭа ƬӰվƬ μҾƬ ӰƬ Ƭſ ƬѸ ƬվǶٵӰ Ƭصַ¹ ƬƬ Ƭ100 Ƭ ƬƵ ƬӰ Ƭ̳̽ Ƭƿ÷Ӱ Ƭ ƬѸش ƬƵ Ƭɫ ˼ƬɫӰ Ƭǿ鰸 ҶƬ߹ۿ 첥ƬɫƬӰ Ƭ߹ۿ ̨Ƭ3gp ձƬЩ ˼ƬͼƬ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ߹ۿ ɫƬav Ƭɫ ƬӰ 뿴ƬӰ ƬƬʲô ƬͼƬȫ ƬӰ첥 ƬЩַ Ƭ Ƭַ ƬѸԴ Ƭַ Ƭܿ Ƭ uƬƵ ƬС˵ ձƬӰ ƬëƬ߿ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ˿սӰ Ƭ Ƭ ôƬ Ƭѹۿ ̨Ƭ߿ Ƭа ̨Ƭٷվ Ƭܿ ƬɫͼƬ ƬƵ Ƭ Ƭۿ Ƭ ƬѸ Ƭmp4 ƬŮ Ƭ˿첥 ƬƷ ŷƬ 3gpƬ߹ۿ ƬٶӰ ƬӰ֮ﱻ Ƭѹۿ ڵƬmp3 ҿƬ򲻿 Ƭ߿ٷ Ƭ߲ Ƭ ɫƬĵӰ Ƭ ÿƬ δﻪƬƵ ̨ƬƵ̨ƬͼƬ Ƭɫ㼪 첥Ƭ Ƭͼ Ƭ ƬͼƬ ƬӰЩ Ƭַ Ƭȥ ÿƬӰ ƬŮ ѯƬ߹ۿ Ƭ ƬӰվƬӰٷ ƬЩ ƬӰ߹ۿ Ƭִȫ Ƭ ƬЩ ƬӰ Ƭ ձƬ˽ȥ ƬƵ¹ Ƭ̵ պƬ򲻿 ƬŮͼƬ ƬӰԺƬӰԺ ƬСʮûëͼƬ ŴƬȫϴ Ƭվ ƬЩٷµַ ˹Ƭ ŷƬ¹ Ƭ󼯺 ¿Ƭ Ƭ ͼƬ 첥Ƭվ ɫƬӰ ƬᲦ 첥Ƭ Ƭ첥ӰԺ Ƭصַ̳ Ƭɫ Ƭۿַµַ Ƭߴս ƬƵ Ƭ ƬӰԺӰ ̺Ƭۿ ƬӰѸ ƬƵ ĹƬйŮ Ƭaaa ҶƬӰ ƬӰԺվ Ƭȫ Ƭ Ƭqv Ƭѿ Ƭͬ Ƭصַ򲻿 ͯƬ йƬ߹ۿ ձƬqvod ִƬӰ ձƬ Ƭ ƬĽдô Ƭ߹ۿ ƬַС˵ Ƭ ͼƬ ĹƬԱ պƬ ڵƬ mp3 ƬߵӰ ŮƬ ƬСӰ ƬͼƬ װƬµַ ƬӰɫƬ첥 Ƭ ƬվƵ ձƬٷվ ɫƬСӰ ƬƵ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭȫ ƬӰȫ ƬߵӰ Ƭ ̨ƬȫѸ Ƭŷ Ƭ Ƭ ƬӰ ƬӰƬ ƬƵ ɫƬ ƬؼƬ ƬĿ¼ ƬӰȫַ ɫƬַ ͨƬ ƬصӰ Ƭ Ƭй Ƭȫش򲻿 ɫƬվ ƬĿ첥ӰƵ йƬӰٷվ ƬС˵ؚƬС˵ַ ձƬƬ ̺Ƭ ƬӰվ aƬƬ 첥ƬӰվƬ ԸƬͼƬ ƬɫƵ Ƭִȫ Ƭ Ƭֻվ ɫƬվӰ ±ϼƬͼƬ ŷƬƬ ƬƬЩ ƬaƬ ŷƬǵµַ ƬӰ ƬɫӰ ƬӰ Ƭַֻ ƬͼƬѸ йƬ붯 ƬӰƬ Ƭַµַ ϲƬ ձƬձƬٷ ƬͼƬ ŮƬ߹ۿ ƬСС˵ Ƭ˽ mp3 ƬƵµַ Ƭȫ Ƭ Ƭӳǽ Ƭվ ҿ첥Ƭվ Ƭhushi ƬЩ ƬС˵ Ƭ鲻Խ ˭֪Ƭվ ƬƬ Ƭd Ƭؼ Ƭַ Ƭձ ƬƬ ±ϼƬ߹ۿ ҶƬƵ Ƭ пƬվӰ ŮƬվ ƬӰ Ƭͨ Ƭƿ÷߹ۿ СӰƬ޿첥 ձƬ Ƭ Ƭվÿ첥ͼƬ ƬӰվ ƬŮԱ ƬŮЩ Ƭ߿ ͨƬ Ƭ򲻿 ŮƬ Ƭҳ ƬӰ ĹƬ ƬҶŮĿԹۿ Ƭַ¹ Ƭר ƬӾ Ƭַ Ƭ Ů˼ ձƬ qvod Ƭ ձƬôĵ ĹƬԱ 첥ƬҰ Ƭ Ƭǿ ҿƬֻ Ƭֻ ձƬŮ ɫƬ첥 Ƭַ ƬǿӰ ƬֻƵ Ƭ ƬߵӰ򲻿 ƬͼƬվ Ƭ ƬŮľ Ƭصַַ ƬӰ Ƭ ɫƬ Ƭ߲ ձƬCOM Ƭſ Ƭ Ƭÿ ƬɫƵ ɫƬ߹ۿ򲻿 ֻƬӰ Ƭ ƬӰ ƬַƵ ƬƵƬ ɫƬʲô Ƭĸվû ƬַƬַ ˭ƬվCOM ÿƬַCOM Ƭôĵ ƬƵ ˭ƬĵӰվѽ ƬվǶ ƬͼƬ ƬӰȫٷ Ƭɫ ҿ첥Ƭ Ƭ ŷƬС˵ Ƭ Ƭȫ Ƭ3gp װƬ ƬӰվµַ պƬaƬ Ƭ Ƭ ɫƬ߹ۿ Ƭȥ Ƭվ ŮƬӰ Ƭ ɫƬ Ƭ ʫƬ߹ۿ Ƭf Ƭŵ ƬȫӰ ӰƬƻ ɫƬӰ պƬ߹ۿ ŷƬĿ¼ȫ Ƭַȥ ƬӰ Ƭ߹ۿַ ̨ƬŮ˼ ̨ƬƵ Ƭǿ ձƬ첥 첥ƬŮ ƬɫѸ ձƬѹۿ ɫƬСӰС˵ Ƭµַ Ƭ ſƬ߹ۿ ɫƬСӰ ƬŮ˼ ƬӰ ̨Ƭ 첥Ƭվ Ƭɫ߹ۿ δﻪƬȫ װƬ Ƭȫ Ƭ ɫƬ ޶ƬƵ Ƭŷ ûƬַ ƬƵ Ƭձ ˭Ƭַ ɫƬӰۿ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭµַ Ƭվ ƬѵӰ Ƭ վ ɫƬӰ ҶƬЩ Ƭҳʱ߹ۿ ƬƵ Ƭ ƬɫƵ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬӰ Ƭȫ Ƭ睵 Ƭǿ鰸Ӱ Ƭ ɫƬwwwyy555 ƬӰƵ Ƭ޽Ӱ ƬͼƬ ƬӰ ŷƬǸ ƬƬ йƬӰ ƬĻǷŪ˳˵ ƬӰ ˼ƬɫС˵ ƬƬȫ ƬʬƬ ޲ƬӰ Ƭ Ѹ 첥ƬӰ Ƭxiapshuo Ƭɫ װƬCOM Ƭ Ƭַ ԾƬӰ Ƭ Ƭ ƬӰ ձƬҩԼ Ƭվ޶ ŮƬӰ иƬԱӰ ƬѸ ƬƵ Ƭҳʱ ̺ƬӰ ƬԱ ƬӰ Ƭ߲ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬӰ ƬͼƬ Ƭ Ƭ ƬƵ Ƭ첥Ӱ Ƭdownload ʩƬֻ Ƭ ƬߵӰС˵ ƬӰ Ƭۿվ ƬߵӰµַ ˭֪Ƭվ ƬƬȫ Ƭ첥 ƬƬ Ƭȫؿ첥 װƬ߿ ˿Ƭ װƬ߲ Ƭ ʮƬŮ ߿Ƭվѵ ͨƬٷ δﻪƬ߹ۿ ƬͼƬ ƬƬӰ Ƭħ Ƭ װƬЩ Ƭ԰ ƬΪ ƬƬӰַ 첥Ƭѿ첥 Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ ѩƬع ձƬС˵ ̨ƬŮԱ ƬӰȫ ƬŲҰ2صַ Ƭ˽ ˼ƬƵ װƬ Ѹ ˭Ƭվ صƬվ ƬӰԺַ ƬӰӰ ƬӰ ŷƬӰ ɫƬӰ ̨ƬƵ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬС˵ Ƭվ ƬӰԺվ ±ƬӰ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭqvod ƬƵ Ƭ첥 ҶƬȫ ƬŮ˵ Ƭ 첥Ƭַ ɩƬaaaӰ ۿƬվ Ƭ¥ ƬվƬ ̨ƬŮ 첥Ƭ߿ Ƭվ Ƭʲô ƬӰ δﻪƬר Ƭַ ŷƬǿ첥 Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ aƬ Ƭmp4 ӰƬ첥 ƬӰ 뿴Ƭô Ƭнд ˭Ƭվ ƬŮ ƬӰƬӰ ȥƬͼƬ Ƭɫ Ƭվÿ첥ٷվ ƬЩ պƬƵ ŷƬۿ ƬߵƵ ƬѵӰ ƬӰվٷ ƬƵ ƬӰ Ƭ ƬӰͼƬ ɫƬֻ ƬƲ 뿴Ƭԣ Ƭ첥COMƬ첥ͼƬ Ƭһ ƬŮ ƿ÷Ƭ Ƭ߿ ɫƬ ƬƵ Ƭַʲô ޱƬƵ Ƭȥ ձƬԱ ƬӰ ޱƬӰ ƬƵ ƬַǶ Ƭ3gp Ƭ򲻿Ƭʲô Ƭ˽ Ƭֻ ƬӰ 첥ƬƵŮƬ ƬӰ ̨Ƭȥ Ƭ첥µַ Ƭµַ ƬӰ ƬƵ ƬΪ Ƭַ ƬƬվ Ƭ￴ пƬվ ˼ƬɫͼƬ Ƭȫ Ƭ ƬͼƬ ƬӰվ ½ƬƵ Ƭѹۿ Ƭȫ Ƭ Ƭɫ Ƭdvd Ƭɫۿ Ƭ Ƭվ ̨Ƭȫ Ƭ ҹƬƵۿ Ƭrmvb ƬĿ첥Ӱµַ ƬԱǷ Ƭۿֻ ĹƬŮ ӰƬӰ Ƭ ۿ Ƭ ߹ۿ Ƭǿ ۲Ƭ ƬΪ ƬĵӾ ƬɫӰӰ Ƭ ƬЩ Ƭصַµַ Ƭ ֲƬ߹ۿ Ƭ˹Ů ձƬ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ첥 Ƭ Ƭڰ칫ҵĴ򲻿 ɫƬ߲ ƬɫӰ 俵ƬƵ ½ƬЩ ƬӰµַ Ƭ13Ƶ Ƭ йƬӰ򲻿 ÿƬ ƬɫƬ ƬЩͼƬ ƬѸ Ƭտ Ƭ ŷƬӰ Ƭ ŷƬǹٷվ Ƭ Ƭ¹ odƬµַ պƬַ ƬӰ ƬŮħ Ƭֹ δﻪƬ߿ Ƭ 첥Ƭ Ƭṵ Ƭĸ ƬӰȥ δﻪƬ 俵ƬӰ Ƭַ첥 ӰƬѿ ƬվӰ ƬƬӰ򲻿 ƬӰ ƬƵ Ƭȥ Ƭ ƬӰַ Ƭվ첥 Ƭ￴ Ƭַ ѿƬַ ƬƵ ƬBT Ƭഺ Ƭַ Ƭַ ½ƬŮ˼ ƬͼƬ ƬСӰվ ĹƬĺŮ Ƭɫ ƬŮ Ƭɫٷվ ƬӰ ƬӰ ƬӰ ӰƬظ СӰƬ޹ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭַ Ƭ첥ӰС˵ ˭Ƭַ Ƭ ƬЩ ԾƬ ƬͥǿѵӰ ̨Ƭȫ ҶƬ鲻Խ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ첥 ձƬȥ Ƭַµַ ɫƬɫƬͼƬ Ƭ߲ Ƭ߿ ӰƬֻ 첥ƬӰվֻ ƬӰվ ƬӰ Ƭ3gpѸ װƬ첥 ձƬ Ƭ˽ ˼ƬͼƬ Ƭ Ƭ ȫ ɫƬӰµַ ̺ƬӰ Ƭ첥 Ƭȫ Ƭַ δﻪƬӰȫ ƬӰȫƵ ձƬ߹ۿ Ƭm Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭʲô ƬӰӰ Ƭq Ƭ첥 Ƭѹۿ ƬеavŮ Ƭۿ ƬӰ ɫƬӰ ʩƬͼƬ Ƭ߲ Ƭվ ձƬȫ ŷƬҹ Ƭ̬ͼƬ ܿƬַ Ƭ߿ ŷƬѸ mp5Ƭ Ƭ Ƭ ˭֪Ƭַ Ƭƿ÷첥ۿ Ƭƿ÷ ƬƵƬ ƬѸ йƬƵ Ƭ߿ձ Ƭ Ƭ ˭Ƭ ƬƷ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬѲ ƬӰ Ƭվ첥 Ƭ3gp ƬӰ Ƭ ŷƬ ƬӵӰ Ƭȫ߹ۿ Ƭ »ƬӰ ƬQVOD Ƭ ƬB³¹ϣͼ ƬԴ Ƭ ƬƬڹٷվ ƬƵ 2Ƭ߹ۿſƵ Ƭ׼ĦԺŮȫ׷ Ƭصַ ƬCOM Ƭ ƬBT Ƭ Ƭɫ򲻿Ƭɫ鶯Ƭ Ƭصַ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ Ƭͼ ƬӰ̰ Ƭعۿ Ƭs Ƭվ Ƭȫ Ƭɫ ƬԱͯ Ƭصַµַ ƬЩС˵ Ƭߵȥ ƬȥĿȫ Ƭ ±ϼƬعۿ ƬŮѪ Ƭ߿ͼƬ Ƭ ƬȥƬƵ Ƭ첥Ӱ Ƭ Ƶ ƬӰ ɫƬվȥ Ƭߵ򲻿 ƬƬ Ƭ߿ Ƭ Ƭ ƬͼƬ Ƭ ձƬƵ ƬߵӰ ƬӰȫʲô ˭ƬӰ Ƭй ҶƬЩ ƬС˵ uƬЩ Ƭ߹ۿٷ ֻƬ Ƭվÿ첥վ Ƭ Ƭµַ ƬƵͼƬ ƬƵֻ Ƭ ŷƬƬ ɫƬ Ƭ ҿƬ¹ ձƬͼƬ ƬƬ ˼Ƭ ˼ƬƵ Ƭտ Ƭ Ӱ ƬӰ Ƭĸ ˭Ƭվ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭۿ Ƭַ ŷƬվ Ƭֿ첥 ÿƬЩ Ƭa ƬӰ߹ۿ Ƭȫ Ƭ߿Ƭ Ƭ ŷƬƵ ̨Ƭȫ Ѹ Ƭƿ÷ۿ 俵ƬЩ ߿Ƭ޹Ӱȫ Ƭصµַ 첥ƬӰվվ δﻪƬӰ Ƭʲô Ƭ Ƭ첥 Ƭ Ƭying uƬ߲ Ƭѵַ¹ ѵƬ ˭ƬС˵ѵ ƬͼƬ Ƭ첥ӰӰ Ƭ ƬŮ Ƭ ˼ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭ ƬCOM ձƬ ƬӰ ˼Ƭɫͼ Ƭ֮붯ͼƬ Ƭ岥԰ȫƵ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭַ Ƭκϼ ƬӰ Ƭվ 첥Ƭֻ Ƭ̳ Ƭµַ Ƭϣ ±Ƭ߿ Ƭ鲥 Ƶ ɫƬ߿С˵ Ƭַ ̨Ƭƿ÷ ƬͼƬ ŷƬ߹ۿ ½ƬѸ ƬŮѪ Ƭȫ Ƭѹۿ ˼Ƭƿ÷ ƿ÷Ƭ߹ۿ ƬɫӰվ ƬѸ ƬۿƵ ȥƬӰ Ƭ4ɫ µƬַ ƬСѨ ƬӰɫƬƵ ƬеĿ ɵƬ Ƭ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭ Ƭ߹ۿ ˭Ƭַ ûƬ Ƭɫ齫Ѹ Ƭַµַ Ƭ ƬӰЩ Ƭ̩ Ƭٷվ ƬƵȫ Ƭһҳ Ƭһɫ Ƭƿ÷߹ۿ Ƭɫ ձƬdvd Ƭ鹦 Ƭ˽mp3 Ƭۿַ򲻿 װƬѸ Ƭصַ ƬվǶվ Ƭɫ ƬƵڴϷͷ ѵƬ첥 ƬӰ ƬӰ Ƭ Ƭ¹ ƬӰ Ƭ3gp ɫƬ߿Ƶ ҶƬƵ Ƭ պƬֻ Ƭȫظ ƬӰƵ װƬѲ ½Ƭ߹ۿ ̨ƬЩ ƬվǶٿ첥 ɫ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭ򲻿 ձƬܽȥ Ƭ׿ Ƭȥ ƬߵӰС˵ ƬӰ ƬĿ첥Ӱ¹ ɫƬͼƬ ƬۿַС˵ Ƭ ƬɫӰӳ Ƭ ƬӰ򲻿 첥Ƭ ձƬƬվ ɫƬվ Ƭ߹ۿ Ƭĵ Ƭ ƬQVOD ƬַӰ ŷƬ Ƭٷվ ƬƬ ƬCOM Ƭֱ ƬͼƬ ±ϼƬ߲ Ƭ֮ɫƬ Ƭվַ ԾƬ ɫƬ߹ۿ Ƭַ Ƭ ƬƬӰµַ ƬЩѵ Ƭĸÿ ƬӰµַ Ƭ ƬձŷƬ ˭Ƭվַ ˼Ƭַ mp4Ƭ˶ ̨ƬͼƬ ɫƬ ԸƬӰ ƬŮ Ƭô ƬվCOM δﻪƬ ƬӰ Ƭɫվ Ƭ ƬŮ ƬַCOM Ƭۿ Ƭַ ͵ƬϵƬ ƬƬȫ ƬŮ˺͹ͼƬ ƬƵ Ƭ˿ ɫƬ͵ ӰƬַ ƬƬ򲻿 ȥƬƵ ƬŮ Ƭ ؽƬ ƬС װƬ Ƭڹۿ ƬƭԴҩ Ƭվÿ첥COM ƬƵ Ƭƿ÷ Ƭͼ첥 aviƬӰ Ƭ ѵƬٷվ Ƭȫ ˼Ƭƿ÷ Ƭձ ƬѸ Ƭַ 첥Ƭڷ Ƭվ ɫƬվ첥 Ƭ ׿ Ƭ߲ ҪƬӰ δﻪƬЩ Ƭ򲻿 ִƬ߹ۿ ƬǸվȥµַ ƬԿ ƬӰ Ƭվ򲻿 Ƭ ëƬ Ƭ 뿴ƬӰ ƬӰȹ Ƭ Ƭɫ ƬۿַƬ Ƭۿ Ƭվ ƬƲݺ 첥Ƭû йƬŮ ƬƵ ŷƬ߲ ƬɫӰ ɫƬٶӰ ɫƬֻ Ƭƻ ƬС ƬӰҹ ߿Ƭվ ѵ ƬԽµַ ձƬվ ƬҹӰ ƬҶ Ƭҩ ƬӰ Ƭѧ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭ ĹƬ Ƭɫ ƬӰ ɫƬۿ ƬƬ߲ ƬӾƿ÷ ƷƬͼ Ƭ°ĵӰ Ƭ첥ӰƬ Ƭ йƬĵӰ Ƭ󼯺 ƬӰ ƬϷ ƬЩ ɫƬѹۿ ƬĿ첥Ӱֻ ƬӰ ƬƬ ̨Ƭ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬŮԽͼƬ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬӰƿ÷ Ƭ ձ ƬӰ Ƭ ƬС ƬӰۿ Ƭ¿ 俵Ƭվ ˼ƬӰ Ƭ ձƬ ̨ƬӰԺ Ƭ֮ⷿ Ƭ ƬƬ ձƬŮ Ƭ Ƭ ̨ƬŮӼ Ƭ Ƭվۿ ҶƬ Ӱ Ƭ¼ Ƭۿ Ƭ߹ۿ ƬͼƬ ƬŮԱ Ƭ첥ٷվ Ƭĵ 첥ƬվͼƬ ƬbtӴȫ Ƭۿַ ̨Ƭ Ƭַַ Ƭ Ƭƿ÷ Ƭعۿ ƬЩ ƬƵ Ƭ԰ mp4Ƭ ͨƬͼƬ Ƭ͵Ů ±ƬƵ ձƬŮ˭ Ƭصַٷ Ƭ߿ ɫƬƵ Ƭվ Ƭд ƬƬɫӰ ŷƬɫ ƬϹۿ պƬ Ƭվ Ƭר ۵ƬӰ Ƭȫ ɫƬСӰֻ Ƭɫֻ ƬƵ Ƭȫصַ Ƭվ ŷƬԽƵ Ƭۿ Ƭվ ƬַʲôƬַվ Ƭ Ƭַ ƬŮ ƬիƵ Ƭqvod ƬƬ߹ۿ ƬӰԺʲô ҿƬƵ Ƭ Ƭַ Ƭ߲ ѵƬµַ ƬԴ ƬƼ ԿƬվ Ƭ߹ۿƵ ƬκϼBT Ƭ ƬЩƵ Ƭκϼ Ƭ Ƭɫ ŷƬ Ƭ˭վ ̨Ƭvideo ƬԴ ƬƬ ƬƲݺ ƬӰ Ƭ߲ Ƭصַȫ ɫ Ƭ Ƭ ƬЩӰ δﻪƬר Ƭ򲻿 Ƭ 뿴Ƭô Ƭվ ƬƵ Ƭ Ƭ Ƭѿ ŷƬ Ƭվ Ƭַ ߿ƬƵվ ƬȫĿ¼ ɫƬӰ ̺ƬЩ ȥƬ ±Ƭۿ Ƭ Ƭ԰ Ƭῴ ѸƬ Ƭ ƬЩӰ Ƭë Ƭdvd ŷƬŮԱ ޶Ƭվ 16¥Ƭ߲ ƬձŮ Ƭ ɫƬַ ձƬŮԱ ƬӰվ ƬӰԺٷ Ƭ 俵ƬЩ ̨ƬͼƬٷ ձƬܸ Ƭֻ Ƭ Ƭdvd ƬӰԺ ƬͼƬ Ƭʲô Ƭȫ522 ƬվЩ Ƭصַ ˭ƬվͼƬ ǿƬ߹ۿ Ƭbt ̨ƬƬ Ƭ Ƭվַ ƬӰ߿ Ƭ ̯ ƬվС˵ պƬȥ 첥Ƭȫ ƬƬӰ ƬЩӰǺƬĿ Ƭ첥 Ƭ ƬƵ ҶƬȫ Ƭ ƬƬ ŷƬbt ɫƬ߹ۿµַ ̺Ƭbt Ƭ ƬԻвô Ƭ Ƭ 첥ƬվƵ ƬƵ ƬǸվȥѹٷվ ƬԽƵ ֣Ƭ Ƭ̽ Ƭɫ Ƭ߹ۿٷվ пƬο ƬŮԱ Ƭⰲװۿ Ƭվ