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《装卸时间与滞期费》第3章-装卸时间的起算-86


  《装卸时间与滞期费》第6版
  CHAPTER 3 第3章
  Commencement of laytime 装卸时间的起算

  So near thereto as she may safely get她能够安全到达的就近地点
  3.493 Unlike the previous three phrases, this clause acts by providing an alternative specified destination, which may take effect if certain conditions are met if the vessel concerned is unable to proceed to its primary destination. The two leading cases on the clause are Dahl v. Nelson, Donkin & Co[1] and The Athamas (Owners) v. Dig Vijay Cement Co Ltd,[2] the former being a decision of the House of Lords and the latter of the Court of Appeal.
  3.493不同于上述三个短语,这个条款的作用是提供另一个备选的指定的目的地,在所涉及的船舶无法前往最初指定的目的地情况下,如果满足某种特定的条件,该条文就可以生效。有关这一条款的两个典型案例是Dahl v. Nelson,Donkin & Co案和The Athamas (Owners) v. Dig Vijay Cement Co Ltd案。前一个案例是上议院做出的判决,后者是在上诉法院。
  3.494 In The Athamas, Sellers LJ said of this phrase:[3]
  The words in that clause vitally affecting this case, ‘‘or so near thereto as she may safely get’’, go back possibly some 150 years to the days of sailing ships and have been in current use in relation to the carriage of goods by sea throughout the era of steamships and their modern successors.
  Despite this, the judicial history of the phrase starts in 1855 with a case which was still giving trouble in 1963 and which will be considered later.[4]
  3.494在The Athamas —案中,Sellers大法官曾经谈到过这个短语。他说:
  在那一条款中的词语对案情的影响极其重要,‘或者她能安全到达的就近地点’可追溯到大约150多年前的帆船时代,对于有关整个蒸汽轮船时代的海上货物运输以及她们的现代的继任者(柴油机船舶)来讲,仍然使用。.
  尽管如此,对于这个短语的司法历史最早起源于1855年,直到1963年,还有一个案例的官司仍然困扰着我们,这在后面我们还会谈及。
  3.495 The governing principle behind these words was said by Brett LJ in Nelson v. Dahl to be:[5]
  . . . lay days do not begin to run, either for the purpose of loading or unloading, until the shipowner has brought his ship to the primary destination named in the charterparty, so as to be ready, so far as the ship is concerned, to receive or deliver there, unless he is prevented from getting his ship to that destination by some obstruction or disability of such a character that it cannot be overcome by the shipowner by any reasonable means, except within such a time as, having regard to the object of the adventure of both the shipowner and charterer, is as a matter of business wholly unreasonable.
  3.495在Nelson v. Dahl案,Brett大法官在审理时谈及了这些词语背后的指导性原则是:
  ……不论是装货时间还是卸货时间,只有等到船东将其船舶驶到了租船合同中订明的最初目的地,并按要求做好了准备,就船舶而言,是装货或卸货准备,才能开始起算,除非是因为受到船东尽管使用任何合理的方法也无法克服的这类性质的障碍或不利条件阻止了他的船舶抵达该目的地,还要考虑到船东和承租人双方在此期间的航运目的,还要排除掉在商业上来讲是完全不合理的那段时间。
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魏长庚
魏船长自2000年开始,有16年海上船舶航运经验,先后在7条远洋货轮担任船长,凭借丰富的航运实践经验,魏船长非常熟悉船舶的运营操作,在船舶操纵、货物装载与管理等方面有着丰富的实践经验。 近年来致力海商法的翻译工作,包括“劳氏法律文库”推荐,Informa出版的Bills of Lading(提单)、Time Charter(期租合同)、Marine Letter of Indemnify(海运保函)等书籍,和他人合作翻译《船舶建造》。 专业著作:中英文版《船舶买卖》第六版、《装卸时间与滞期费》

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